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Interim guidelines on maritime cyber risk management

01.01.2016
IMO / OMI Nouveau

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- n° MSC1/Circ. 1526 - 6 p.

"The aim of the Interim Guidelines is to provide a range of recommendations to the shipping community to guard against the risks posed by the current and future cyber threats".

cybersécurité ; navire ; navigation ; prévention des risques

Cyber risk and seaworthiness

September 2017
Seaways Nouveau

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- p. 15-16

"... Implementation of cyber risk management systems and protocols, training and education of relevant crew and personel in the identification and mitigation of cyber risks. In the absence of being able to show positive steps taken by in line with either of these themes, a shipowner caught in a claim may well find itself in an uphill of battle to establish the fitness of its vessel".

cybersécurité ; navire ; sûreté du transport maritime ; navigation ; prévention des risques

Global marine technology trends 2030 - Autonomous systems

08-2017
Lloyd's Register Group;Qinetiq;University of Southampton Nouveau

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- n° vol.64,n°253 - p.5-18

[résumé auteur] Face aux besoins exprimés tant par le navire autonome que par le véhicule autonome, un processus de navigation hybride directe est proposé, avec la Méthode du Plan des Sommets (MPS) comme base algorithmique commune. Après rappel des principes de la méthode, des détails sur les caractéristiques analytiques des Sommets, des descriptions de quelques cas ; des conclusions sont tirées sur le pilotage automatique des navires.
[résumé auteur] Face aux besoins exprimés tant par le navire autonome que par le véhicule autonome, un processus de navigation hybride directe est proposé, avec la Méthode du Plan des Sommets (MPS) comme base algorithmique commune. Après rappel des principes de la méthode, des détails sur les caractéristiques analytiques des Sommets, des descriptions de quelques cas ; des conclusions sont tirées sur le pilotage automatique des navires.

navigation autonome ; navire autonome ; navigation ; navigation astronomique ; navigation en vue des côtes ; amer

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- n° 70-4 - p. 870-886

Serious accidents in the marine and offshore industry have underscored the need for safety evaluation of maritime operations using risk and safety analysis methods which have become a powerful tool in identifying technical solutions and operational management procedures. Given that Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a known methodology used for analysing engineering systems, the approach is usually conducted using known failure data. But most offshore operations are conducted in a challenging and uncertain environment and the failure data of some of these systems are usually unavailable requiring a flexible and yet robust algorithm for their analysis. This paper therefore seeks to analyse the complex structure of Offshore Supply Vessel (OSV) collision with platforms by incorporating a Fuzzy Fault Tree Analysis (FFTA) method. Fuzzy set theory provides the flexibility to represent vague information from the analysis process. The methodology is structured in such a manner that diverse sets of data are integrated and synthesized for analysing the system. It is envisaged that the proposed method could provide the analyst with a framework to evaluate the risks of collision enabling informed decisions regarding the deployments of resources for system improvement.
Serious accidents in the marine and offshore industry have underscored the need for safety evaluation of maritime operations using risk and safety analysis methods which have become a powerful tool in identifying technical solutions and operational management procedures. Given that Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is a known methodology used for analysing engineering systems, the approach is usually conducted using known failure data. But most offshore ...

offshore ; navigation ; sécurité

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- n° 70-4 - p. 859-869

The purpose of this study is to determine the navigation efficiency for transiting from various ports in Asia and Rotterdam in Europe via the Northern Sea Route. Navigation efficiency was derived from fuel consumption ratios. Preliminary research results showed that fuel consumption and the amount of carbon dioxide emissions was reduced by transiting from various ports through the European Sea Route, and the navigation efficiencies of the various ports ranked in the following descending order: Yokohama - Busan - Shanghai - Kaohsiung - Hong Kong - Singapore. The higher the ratio was, the lower the navigation efficiency of using the Northern Sea Route, i.e. more fuel was consumed and travel costs were higher. In contrast, the lower the ratio was, the higher the navigation efficiency, i.e. less fuel was consumed and travel costs were lower. Recommendations were discussed in the study.
The purpose of this study is to determine the navigation efficiency for transiting from various ports in Asia and Rotterdam in Europe via the Northern Sea Route. Navigation efficiency was derived from fuel consumption ratios. Preliminary research results showed that fuel consumption and the amount of carbon dioxide emissions was reduced by transiting from various ports through the European Sea Route, and the navigation efficiencies of the ...

milieu polaire ; navigation ; émissions de gaz

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- n° 70-4 - p. 829-846

An X-ray pulsar/starlight Doppler deeply-integrated navigation method is proposed in this paper. A starlight Doppler measurement-aided phase propagation model, which can remove the orbital effect within the recorded photon Time Of Arrivals (TOAs), is derived, and guarantees that the pulse phase can be extracted from the converted photon TOAs using computationally efficient methods. Some simulations are performed by a hardware-in-loop system to verify the performance of the integrated pulse phase estimation method as well as of the integrated navigation method. The integrated pulse phase estimation method could achieve an estimation performance similar to the existing method for orbiting vehicles at the cost of much less computational complexity, is capable of handling the signals of millisecond pulsars, and is applicable to various vehicles. In addition, the proposed integrated navigation method could provide reliable positioning results for various vehicles.
An X-ray pulsar/starlight Doppler deeply-integrated navigation method is proposed in this paper. A starlight Doppler measurement-aided phase propagation model, which can remove the orbital effect within the recorded photon Time Of Arrivals (TOAs), is derived, and guarantees that the pulse phase can be extracted from the converted photon TOAs using computationally efficient methods. Some simulations are performed by a hardware-in-loop system to ...

navigation

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- n° 70-4 - p. 748-760

In this paper, we consider the joint estimation of the position of a spacecraft and debris in Earth orbit to achieve spacecraft localisation based on angular measurements and precise measurements of the debris relative to the spacecraft. The dynamic model of the spacecraft caters for several perturbing effects, such as Earth and Moon gravitational field asymmetry and the Earth's oblateness effect. The Moon's position is assumed to be accurately known for the purposes of simulation from published Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides. The measurement process is based on the elevation and azimuth of the Moon and the Sun with respect to the spacecraft reference system. Range measurements are not assumed to be available. Position and velocity of the spacecraft are estimated by using the Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). The performance of the filters are evaluated on an example of an Earth-orbiting satellite at an altitude over 1200 km with measurements of the directions of the Moon and the Sun only. It is shown that the estimates of position and velocity components track the corresponding simulated position and velocity components.
In this paper, we consider the joint estimation of the position of a spacecraft and debris in Earth orbit to achieve spacecraft localisation based on angular measurements and precise measurements of the debris relative to the spacecraft. The dynamic model of the spacecraft caters for several perturbing effects, such as Earth and Moon gravitational field asymmetry and the Earth's oblateness effect. The Moon's position is assumed to be accurately ...

mesure : métrologie ; navigation ; orbite

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- n° 70-4 - p. 761-774

The Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver on board the main satellite of the TianTuo-3 constellation, LvLiang-1, is a new generation of AIS receiver. Having partly solved the signal conflict problems and with larger coverage over the ground, the AIS receiver on board TianTuo-3 greatly improves the signal detection ability. The data received by the AIS receiver during the TianTuo-3 debugging stage is employed for detailed analysis in this paper. Results include: TianTuo-3 implements four-frequency detection at the same time, and a time-flag is inserted into the received AIS data, a small portion of Class A vessels (at least 1480) have been equipped with AIS sending the long range AIS broadcast message with two new frequency channels and the hourly averaged count of the message received by TianTuo-3's AIS is between 1500 ~ 2500. This AIS receiver is capable of real-time tracking a single vessel. In conclusion, the TianTuo-3 space-based AIS receiver is capable of continuously receiving AIS messages sent by global maritime vessels.
The Automatic Identification System (AIS) receiver on board the main satellite of the TianTuo-3 constellation, LvLiang-1, is a new generation of AIS receiver. Having partly solved the signal conflict problems and with larger coverage over the ground, the AIS receiver on board TianTuo-3 greatly improves the signal detection ability. The data received by the AIS receiver during the TianTuo-3 debugging stage is employed for detailed analysis in ...

technologie spatiale ; navigation ; satellite

Aviation checklists adapted for ships

June 2017
Telegraph

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- n° vol.50, n°6 - p.13

The Seahorse project is a pioneering research project to improve shipping safety by adapting procedures used in the aviation industry.

navigation ; erreur humaine ; procédure ; recherche appliquée

Global positioning system : theory and applications volume II
PARKINSON, Bradford. W ; SPILKER, James J.
1996
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics H

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vol. II - 643 p.

These two-volumes explain the technology, performance, and applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS). The books are the only of their kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS.

GPS ; satellite ; navigation ; calcul d'erreur ; LORAN

Global positioning system : theory and applications volume I
PARKINSON, Bradford. W ; SPILKER, James J.
1996
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics H

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vol. I - 793 p.

These two-volumes explain the technology, performance, and applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS). The books are the only of their kind to present the history of GPS development, the basic concepts and theory of GPS, and the recent developments and numerous applications of GPS. Each chapter is authored by an individual or group of individuals who are recognized as leaders in their area of GPS.

GPS ; satellite ; navigation ; calcul d'erreur ; LORAN

Navigation assessments
GALE, Harry
2016
The Nautical Institute

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- 88 p.

- Assessing bridge team management
- Training and mentoring
- The human element
- Incident case studies

navigation ; compétence ; gestion des ressources à la passerelle ; tutorat ; facteur humain ; management d'un équipage

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- n° 70 - p. 628-647

In the conventional integrated navigation system, the statistical information of the process and measurement noises is considered constant. However, due to the changing dynamic environment and imperfect knowledge of the filter statistical information, the process and measurement covariance matrices are unknown and time-varying. In this paper, a multirate adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to improve the performance of the Error State Kalman Filter (ESKF) for a marine navigation system. The designed navigation system is composed of a strapdown inertial navigation system along with Doppler velocity log and inclinometer with different sampling rates. In the proposed filter, the conventional adaptive Kalman filter is modified by adaptively tuning the measurement covariance matrix of the auxiliary sensors that have varying sampling grates based on the innovation sequence. The performance of the proposed filter is evaluated using real measurements. Experimental results show that the average root mean square error of the position estimated by the proposed filter can be decreased by approximately 60% when compared to that of the ESKF.
In the conventional integrated navigation system, the statistical information of the process and measurement noises is considered constant. However, due to the changing dynamic environment and imperfect knowledge of the filter statistical information, the process and measurement covariance matrices are unknown and time-varying. In this paper, a multirate adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to improve the performance of the Error State Kalman ...

navigation ; inertie : physique

Great Circles and Rhumb Lines on the Complex Plane
STUART, Robin G.
05/2017
The Journal of Navigation

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- n° 70 - p. 618-627

Mapping points on the Riemann sphere to points on the plane of complex numbers by stereographic projection has been shown to offer a number of advantages when applied to problems in navigation traditionally handled using spherical trigonometry. Here it is shown that the same approach can be used for problems involving great circles and/or rhumb lines and it results in simple, compact expressions suitable for efficient computer evaluation. Worked numerical examples are given and the values obtained are compared to standard references.
Mapping points on the Riemann sphere to points on the plane of complex numbers by stereographic projection has been shown to offer a number of advantages when applied to problems in navigation traditionally handled using spherical trigonometry. Here it is shown that the same approach can be used for problems involving great circles and/or rhumb lines and it results in simple, compact expressions suitable for efficient computer evaluation. Worked ...

algorithme ; navigation

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- n° 70 - p. 607-617

In a waist-worn Pedestrian Navigation System (PNS) based on Dead-Reckoning (DR), heading drift caused by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyro bias is an essential factor affecting DR accuracy. Considering the characteristics of pedestrian navigation and the poor bias repeatability of MEMS gyros, this paper presents a standing calibration method for MEMS gyro bias. The current gyro biases for each boot can be calibrated accurately in the initial stage before walking. Since the attitude angles calculated by the output data from magnetic sensor and accelerometers do not drift, this paper applies the reverse algorithm of attitude updating to calculate the angular velocities of human motion. Then the gyro biases at each moment can be acquired by subtraction operation between the measured angular velocities from gyros and the calculated angular velocities of human motion. Finally, in order to restrain the random error caused by sensor noise, the calculated biases in the initial stage are smoothed, and consequently the optimal estimate of current gyro biases after each boot can be obtained. Still and dynamic turntable experiments and a walking experiment are performed to compare and analyse the proposed method and the Zero Angular Rate Update (ZARU) method. Experimental results show that the proposed method can also calibrate the gyro bias accurately in the case of body swaying.
In a waist-worn Pedestrian Navigation System (PNS) based on Dead-Reckoning (DR), heading drift caused by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) gyro bias is an essential factor affecting DR accuracy. Considering the characteristics of pedestrian navigation and the poor bias repeatability of MEMS gyros, this paper presents a standing calibration method for MEMS gyro bias. The current gyro biases for each boot can be calibrated accurately in the ...

MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) ; navigation

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- n° 70 - p. 580-594

The regional part of the current BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) consists of five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. We examined three algorithms for BDS velocity estimation. In addition, the performance of velocity estimation using different BDS satellite combinations was analysed. Static tests demonstrated that velocity precision using Raw Doppler (RD) measurements was of the order of centimetres per second, whereas the carrier-phase-Derived Doppler (DD) measurements and Time-Differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP) method provided accuracies of the order of millimetres per second. Because of the irregularity of the satellites' distribution, three peaks exist on the north component in the 24-hour velocity series. Besides, the GEO satellites contribute significantly in velocity estimation and the satellites' geometry condition seriously declined when excluding GEO satellites. In kinematic tests, the root mean square of the velocity error derived by DD and TDCP both attained the centimetre per second level. Moreover, the precision of velocity determination with these three methods was degraded by the sudden acceleration of the vehicle.
The regional part of the current BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) consists of five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. We examined three algorithms for BDS velocity estimation. In addition, the performance of velocity estimation using different BDS satellite combinations was analysed. Static tests demonstrated that ...

BDS (BeiDou navigation satellite system) ; navigation ; vitesse

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- n° 70 - p. 561-579

In life-critical applications, the real-time detection of faults is very important in Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation systems. A new fault detection method for soft fault detection is developed in this paper with the purpose of improving real-time performance. In general, the innovation information obtained from a Kalman filter is used for test statistic calculations in Autonomous Integrity Monitored Extrapolation (AIME). However, the innovation of the Kalman filter is degraded by error tracking and closed-loop correction effects, leading to time delays in soft fault detection. Therefore, the key issue of improving real-time performance is providing accurate innovation to AIME. In this paper, the proposed algorithm incorporates Least Squares-Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) regression theory into AIME. Because the LS-SVM has a good regression and prediction performance, the proposed method provides replaced innovation obtained from the LS-SVM driven by real-time observation data. Based on the replaced innovation, the test statistics can follow fault amplitudes more accurately; finally, the real-time performance of soft fault detection can be improved. Theoretical analysis and physical simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively improve the detection instantaneity.
In life-critical applications, the real-time detection of faults is very important in Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) integrated navigation systems. A new fault detection method for soft fault detection is developed in this paper with the purpose of improving real-time performance. In general, the innovation information obtained from a Kalman filter is used for test statistic calculations in Autonomous Integrity ...

GNSS ; navigation ; calcul d'erreur ; AIME (Autonomous Integrity Monitored Extrapolation)

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- n° 70 - p. 527-546

A robust state estimation technique based on the Huber-based Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed for Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation processing. The Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) employs a third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule to compute the Gaussian weighted integration, such that the numerical instability induced by round-off errors can be avoided. In GPS navigation, the filter-based estimation of the position and velocity states can be severely degraded due to contaminated measurements caused by outliers or deviation from a Gaussian distribution assumption. For the signals contaminated with non-Gaussian noise or outliers, a robust scheme combining the Huber M-estimation methodology and the CKF framework is beneficial where the Huber M-estimation methodology is used to reformulate the measurement information of the CKF. GPS navigation processing using the HCKF algorithm has been carried out and the performance has been compared to those based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and CKF approaches. Simulation and experimental results presented in this paper confirm the effectiveness of the method.


A robust state estimation technique based on the Huber-based Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed for Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation processing. The Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) employs a third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule to compute the Gaussian weighted integration, such that the numerical instability induced by round-off errors can be avoided. In GPS navigation, the filter-based estimation of the position and velocity states can be severely degraded due to contaminated measurements caused by outliers or deviation from a Gaussian distribution assumption. For the signals contaminated with non-Gaussian noise or outliers, a robust scheme combining the Huber M-estimation methodology and the CKF framework is beneficial where the Huber M-estimation methodology is used to reformulate the measurement information of the CKF. GPS navigation processing using the HCKF algorithm has been carried out and the performance has been compared to those based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and CKF approaches. Simulation and experimental results presented in this paper confirm the effectiveness of the method.


A robust state estimation technique based on the Huber-based Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed for Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation processing. The Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) employs a third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule to compute the Gaussian weighted integration, such that the numerical instability induced by round-off errors can be avoided. In GPS navigation, the filter-based estimation of the position and velocity states can be severely degraded due to contaminated measurements caused by outliers or deviation from a Gaussian distribution assumption. For the signals contaminated with non-Gaussian noise or outliers, a robust scheme combining the Huber M-estimation methodology and the CKF framework is beneficial where the Huber M-estimation methodology is used to reformulate the measurement information of the CKF. GPS navigation processing using the HCKF algorithm has been carried out and the performance has been compared to those based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) and CKF approaches. Simulation and experimental results presented in this paper confirm the effectiveness of the method.
A robust state estimation technique based on the Huber-based Cubature Kalman Filter (HCKF) is proposed for Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation processing. The Cubature Kalman Filter (CKF) employs a third-degree spherical-radial cubature rule to compute the Gaussian weighted integration, such that the numerical instability induced by round-off errors can be avoided. In GPS navigation, the filter-based estimation of the position and ...

GPS ; navigation

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- n° 70 - p. 505-526

A Celestial Navigation System (CNS) is a feasible and economical autonomous navigation system for deep-space probes. Ephemeris errors have a great influence on the performance of CNSs during the Mars approach phase, but there are few research studies on this problem. In this paper, the analysis shows that the ephemeris error of Mars is slowly-varying, while the ephemeris error of Phobos and Deimos is periodical. The influence of the ephemeris errors of Mars and its satellites is analysed in relation to both the Sun-centred frame and the Mars-centred frame. The simulations show that the position error of a probe relative to the Sun caused by the Mars ephemeris error is almost equal to the ephemeris error itself, that the velocity error is affected slightly, and that the position and velocity relative to Mars are hardly affected. The navigation result of a Mars probe is also greatly affected by the quantities and periodicities of the ephemeris errors of Phobos and Deimos, especially that of Deimos.
A Celestial Navigation System (CNS) is a feasible and economical autonomous navigation system for deep-space probes. Ephemeris errors have a great influence on the performance of CNSs during the Mars approach phase, but there are few research studies on this problem. In this paper, the analysis shows that the ephemeris error of Mars is slowly-varying, while the ephemeris error of Phobos and Deimos is periodical. The influence of the ephemeris ...

erreur humaine ; navigation ; astronomie nautique

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navigation [171]

sécurité maritime [25]

route maritime [20]

radar [19]

histoire [17]

réglementation [16]

instrument d'orientation [15]

astronomie : science [13]

navire [11]

météorologie [10]

marées [9]

navigation par satellite [9]

construction navale [8]

LORAN [8]

radionavigation [8]

transport maritime [8]

caractéristique [7]

cartographie [7]

GPS [7]

navigation astronomique [7]

préparation de traversée [7]

radiocommunication [7]

réglementation maritime [7]

hydrographie [6]

pilotage [6]

accident [5]

calcul d'erreur [5]

carte marine [5]

cybersécurité [5]

ECDIS [5]

GNSS [5]

loch [5]

manoeuvre [5]

navigation par inertie [5]

océanographie [5]

sextant [5]

communication [4]

dictionnaire [4]

gyrocompas [4]

hydrodynamique [4]

manoeuvre du navire [4]

marée noire [4]

matelotage [4]

milieu marin [4]

milieu polaire [4]

pollution par les hydrocarbures [4]

port [4]

réglementation technique [4]

sécurité de la navigation [4]

simulation : technique [4]

sondeur [4]

structure [4]

aides électroniques à la navigation [3]

anglais maritime [3]

compas [3]

compétence [3]

contrôle [3]

détermination de la longitude [3]

éphémérides [3]

erreur humaine [3]

facteur humain [3]

innovation technologique [3]

instrument d'observation [3]

instrument de mesure [3]

marine marchande :généralités [3]

mécanique [3]

nautisme [3]

navigateur [3]

navigation en vue des côtes [3]

procédure [3]

propulsion [3]

résistance des matériaux [3]

responsabilité civile [3]

satellite [3]

voilier [3]

18e siècle [2]

accident de mer [2]

aides à la navigation [2]

amer [2]

analyse des données [2]

architecture navale [2]

astronomie de position [2]

automatisation [2]

calcul de latitude [2]

calcul vectoriel [2]

carte électronique [2]

champ magnétique [2]

cinématique [2]

code : communication [2]

commerce [2]

construction des structures des navires [2]

contrat commercial [2]

contrôle de qualité [2]

coordination [2]

document cartographique [2]

droit des transports [2]

dynamique du navire [2]

e-navigation [2]

éphémérides nautiques [2]

étoile : astre [2]

flottabilité [2]

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